The sauropods were the longest and heaviest animals ever to walk the earth. Their leg bones were designed thick and strong. Some of the largest sauropods grew to over a 120 feet long and weighing 70 tons. Features that made them unique were the presence of ten or more elongated vertebrae in the neck, giving them the title of “long necks”, and most had a equally long tail. Their gigantic weights were supported by massive leg bones and a thickening of the cartilage between the joints for extra cushioning. They had short compact feet, similar to elephant’s feet, but with a large claw on the first digit of the front feet. Their heads were rather small compared to their body size. All of the sauropods were thought to be herbivores (plant-eaters). Some had sharp teeth and some only had teeth in the front of their mouths.
Sauropods are the most famous of the dinosaurs with names such as Brachiosaurus, Apatosaurus or Brontosaurus (former name which had a wrong skull), Diplodocus, and Camarasaurus. Sauropods are commonly found without a skull for at least two reasons. First, the skull had a fairly weak attachment site on the neck. Secondly, the skull bones are thinner than most bones and more fragile and harder to preserve. Some sauropod skulls have been found crushed and were not able to be used with the rest of the skeleton. The “missing Skull” problem was the reason Professor Marsh placed the wrong skull on his original Brontosaurus reconstruction. He actually found a skull from a different quarry miles away and used it on his Brontosaurus reconstruction. The skull was actually from a Camarasaurus. In 1883, Marsh put his Brontosaurus reconstructed fossil skeleton on display with the wrong skull. It was not until about 80 years later that this mistake was corrected. Brontosaurus is now called Apatosaurus and has a skull similar to Diplodocus.
Sauropods were designed with holes on the side of their back vertebrae, called pleurocoels. These openings lessened the weight of the vertebrae, like the fenestra in the skulls of therapods, which lighten their bone mass and making them a bit more mobile.
Sauropods had an unique hip structure that let them walk with legs directly underneath them. The two common types of sauropods in North America were the Camarasuridae and the Diplodocidae. The Camarasaurus were equipped with spoon-shaped teeth, that ran the entire length of the jaw. In contrast, the Diplodocus were designed with only front. pencil-like shaped teeth, most likely for stripping vegetation from branches. Camarasaurus had a shorter, round skull, and Diplodocus had a elongated, horse-like skull. These smaller skulls in sauropods gave them the ability to raise their necks up high into the air.
Overall, sauropods possessed the perfect combination of characteristics to have extremely long necks. It is if they were designed that way. The Creator fully formed the sauropods with these characteristics, simultaneously. It did not happen by random chance over millions of years. God created all the sauropod dinosaurs on the six day of creation week, the same time He created Adam (man).