There are a host of Indian town scattered over the state of Alabama has evidence by the many Indian names of some of the present day cities.
Some have rich histories while others very little is known.
On November 24, 1540 the DeSoto expedition visited an old Indian town on the west bank of the Black Warrior River at what is now known as St. Stephens Bluff.. This was probably one of the earliest encounters that these Indians, living in their settlement of Cabusto, had with white men who had come exploring the New World from Spain.
Cahaba was the site of Alabama’s first capital and prior to that researchers believe it was the location of the ancient Indian town of Casiste. Again the DeSoto expedition records visiting this small village located along the river.
Shawnee Indians from Ohio established the town of Sylacoggy or Sauwanoos at what is now near the Sylacauga waterworks in Talladega County.
In Bullock County near the community of Suspension was the old Indian town of Chunnenuggee.
On their march through Alabama the DeSoto expedition came to the large town of Chiaha which was located on and island in the Tennessee River near Stevenson. They reached the town via canoes and rafts on June 5, 1540 and upon their arrival they were offered honey, walnut oil, bear’s oil in gourds , 20 barns of corn and a two yards long string of freshwater pearls.
A Chickasaw Indian village was located near Chandler Springs in Talladega County. The village, Chicachas, was noted on a 1775 map and had a population of 200 residents.
Early histories tell of a Seminole Indian village with 580 residents called Chiska Talofa located on the western side of the Chattahoochee River in Henry County.
Horseshoe Bend, now the site of Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, was the home of the Upper Creek village of Cholocco Litabixee and was where General Andrew Jackson along with John Coffee defeated the hostile Red Sticks commanded by Chief Menawa and basically broke the power of what was a confederation of Indians. Attacked from their front and rear, the Red Sticks suffered a loss of 1,000 warriors.
Coosa, located slightly over a mile from Childersburg on the east bank of Talladega Creek had a long history beginning on July 16, 1540 when the DeSoto expedition visited and found a flourishing town of 500 homes and 1,000 warriors.
However by June, 1560 the Don Tristan de Luna expedition found only 30 houses in a small neighborhood. Six years later the explorer Juan De Pardo reported the town with 150 people living in a “pueblo”. But when William Bartram came through Alabama in 1775 the town was abandoned and in ruins.
While traveling through the Tennessee River area the DeSoto expedition came across Coste, again in the Tennessee River at the upper end of what is now Pine Island – it is presently under water.
The explorers entered the town on July 2, 1540 and met resistance from 1,500 warriors using clubs and bows and arrows. Expedition soldiers seized the chief and he along with some leaders were put in chains and threatened with burning. The warriors stopped fighting and a real battle was avoided.
Creek Path was established by Cherokee Indians in 1785 on the eastern side of Brown’s Creek in Marshall County. It was a rather large settlement with around 500 residents and was served by a missionary school and church until the removal of the Cherokees to Oklahoma.
Another town of great importance to the Cherokees was Kagunyi located four miles south of Stevenson on the Tennessee River. It was founded in 1782 by Cherokees led by “The Crow” and was sometimes known as Crowtown. They were known to be enemies of white settlers.